Tech & Science Warm and Wet Ancient Mars? Maybe Not

16:37  07 december  2017
16:37  07 december  2017 Source:   MSN

Bruno Mars lived out childhood dream performing at Apollo Theater

  Bruno Mars lived out childhood dream performing at Apollo Theater Bruno Mars wanted to film his first TV concert special at New York's historic Apollo Theater because he dreamed about wowing the audience there as a child. The Hawaii-born musician used to be hooked on the venue's famed TV talent series, Showtime at the Apollo, which began airing in the late 1980s, and the Uptown Funk hitmaker knew if he managed to one day conquer that stage, he would have truly made it as a singer. "I remember growing up watching Showtime at the Apollo, before X Factor and American Idol - that was the singing competition show," he recalled to The Associated Press. "It was pretty cut-throat. Either you got it and they would cheer you on, or you don't and they'll boo you off the stage. And that's just Entertainment 101, and you feel that when you get into that theatre. This is where it all begins, it feels like." Bruno got a feel for the Harlem concert hall in September (17), when he performed on the venue's marquee to promote his primetime special, Bruno Mars: 24K Magic Live at the Apollo, and he has spent recent weeks filming various segments for the show, including footage of the singer walking through the streets of the Big Apple, making stops at a number of local restaurant hot spots as he greeted his fans. "The coolest part about that was the locals in Harlem, holding their arms out for you, (saying), 'Yo Bruno, welcome to Harlem!'," he said.

Perhaps, planetary scientists ventured, ancient Mars was blanketed by a thick atmosphere that kept the planet much warmer and wetter than it is now, with flowing water, lakes and maybe even an ocean covering at least part of its surface.

Scientists now think that early Mars maybe was not so wet . A new study presents an alternative explanation for the prevalence of Mars ' ancient clay minerals, which on Earth most often result from water chemically reacting with rock over long periods of time.

Artist’s illustration of how Mars may have looked soon after it formed, where clay-rich terrains (blues and greens) are mixed with basaltic lavas and impact-melted rocks (browns and blacks). © Kevin Cannon Artist’s illustration of how Mars may have looked soon after it formed, where clay-rich terrains (blues and greens) are mixed with basaltic lavas and impact-melted rocks (browns and blacks). Ancient Mars may not have been all that warm and wet after all.

The Red Planet has widespread deposits of clay minerals, which are formed via the interaction of volcanic rock and water. This fact has led some researchers to suspect that liquid water covered much of the Martian surface for extended stretches long ago — perhaps during the Noachian period, which lasted from about 4.1 billion to 3.7 billion years ago.

Bruno Mars wins big at 2017 Soul Train Awards

  Bruno Mars wins big at 2017 Soul Train Awards Bruno Mars was the big winner at the 2017 Soul Train Awards, scoring five top prizes. The Locked Out of Heaven star won the Best R&B/Soul Male Artist, Best Dance Performance, Video of the Year and Album/Mixtape of the Year, all for his record 24K Magic and single of the same name, and Song of the Year for That's What I Like. Bruno, who is currently on the South American leg of the 24K Magic World Tour, shared Soul Train's tweet announcing his Video of the Year win and wrote, "God bless you @SoulTrain !! We worked really hard on this video so this means a lot to me. Sending my love from South America. THANK YOU." He later shared Soul Train's full list of winners and wrote, "ITS 2AM & IM SINGING AT THE TOP OF MY LUNGS IN MY HOTEL ROOM!THANK U @SoulTrain WIN OR LOSE U CONTINUE TO BRING ME NOTHIN BUT JOY (sic)!" The ceremony, which was hosted by Erykah Badu, was filmed at the Orleans Arena in Las Vegas on 5 November (17), but was televised on BET on Sunday night (26Nov17) - just a week after Bruno won seven prizes at the American Music Awards (AMAs). Other Soul Train winners included SZA, who won both the Best New Artist and the Best R&B/Soul Female Artist awards, and Solange Knowles, who received The Ashford & Simpson Songwriter's Award along with the co-writers of Cranes in the Sky. Cardi B took home the Rhythm & Bars Award for Bodak Yellow, DJ Khaled, Rihanna and Bryson Tiller won Best Collaboration for Wild Thoughts, and the Soul Train Certified Award was a tie between Bell Biv DeVoe and Ledisi. Toni Braxton was honoured with the previously-announced Legend Award, while R&B trio SWV received the Lady of Soul Award. Both sets of honourees performed a medley of their hits.

Parts of ancient Mars were covered in a cold ocean of water, a new study suggests. The research goes against theories that ancient Mars was warm and wet .

Maybe Not . By Mike Wall, Space.com Senior Writer | December 6, 2017 01:01pm ET. Ancient Mars may not have been all that warm and wet after all. The Red Planet has widespread deposits of clay minerals, which are formed via the interaction of volcanic rock and water.

But a new study suggests that these clays could have formed even longer ago, right after the planet's formation — meaning the Noachian may well have been a mostly dry and chilly time,  as other scientists have posited. [The Life on Mars Search: Photo Time Line]

"This is a very contentious and ongoing debate," said study lead author Kevin Cannon, who is now a postdoctoral researcher at the University of Central Florida but performed the study work while a Ph.D. student at Brown University in Rhode Island.

"I'd say, right now, it's sort of leaning more toward the idea that Mars was mostly cold and dry during that time, and that you just had these 100- or 1,000-year periods where temperatures got a little bit warmer — enough to have melting and runoff, but maybe not enough to significantly alter the crust and form a bunch of clays and things like that," Cannon told Space.com. 

Bruno Mars and JAY-Z land top nominations for 2017 Grammy Awards

  Bruno Mars and JAY-Z land top nominations for 2017 Grammy Awards Bruno Mars and JAY-Z have received nominations for all the top prizes at the 2017 Grammy Awards. The Locked Out of Heaven singer was mentioned in the three most prestigious categories when they were announced on CBS This Morning on Tuesday (28Nov17). The star received a nomination for Album of the Year and Record of the Year for 24K Magic, and Song of the Year for That's What I Like. JAY-Z also received nominations in those same categories for his album 4:44 and the single of the same name as well as Record of the Year for The Story of O.J. In the top categories, they are closely followed by Childish Gambino and Kendrick Lamar and Luis Fonsi, Daddy Yankee and Justin Bieber, who all received two. Other Album of the Year nominees include Gambino's "Awaken, My Love!", Lamar's DAMN. and Melodrama by Lorde, while Record of the Year includes Fonsi's collaboration Despacito, Gambino's Redbone, and HUMBLE. by Lamar. Despacito also received a mention for Song of the Year, and will also go up against Issues by Julia Michaels and 1-800-273-8255 - Logic ft. Alessia Cara and Khalid. The Best New Artist award is a battle between Alessia Cara, Khalid, Lil Uzi Vert, Julia Michaels, and SZA. The winners of the 60th annual Grammy Awards will be announced on 28 January (18) at Madison Square Garden in New York. The ceremony will be hosted by James Corden.

This led some to believe that Mars was never warm and wet but was a largely frozen planet, covered in ice-sheets and glaciers. Topographic map of Mars . Arabia Terra is an ancient region that connects the southern highlands and the northern lowlands.

Scientists have learned a bit more about the ancient climate of Mars . One idea was that 3 to 4 billion years ago, Mars was warm , wet , and Earth-like with a northern sea. These conditions may have supported life.

An ancient steam bath?

Cannon and his colleagues are proposing a new formation scenario for Mars' ancient clays: that most of them took shape during the first few tens of millions of years of the planet's existence.

In those very early days, Mars was likely covered by a scorching-hot ocean of liquid rock (as were the other rocky planets, including Earth), scientists say. As this rock melted, it released water vapor, carbon dioxide and other gases, generating a steamy, superhot, high-pressure atmosphere on the Red Planet.

The study team synthesized rock similar to Martian basalt, then exposed the stuff to the steam-bath conditions that likely prevailed on the Red Planet's surface way back when. After a mere two weeks, the researchers found, a lot had happened.

"It was really remarkable how quickly and extensively this basalt was altered," Cannon said in a statement. "At the highest temperatures and pressures, it ate completely through the basalt particles. It's a really intense degree of alteration."

NASA's Mars Curiosity Rover Watched the Sun Set and It Will Take Your Breath Away

  NASA's Mars Curiosity Rover Watched the Sun Set and It Will Take Your Breath Away It's the same sun, but the planet's weird atmosphere dyes the scene an eerie blue.NASA's Curiosity rover has spent 1,890 Martian days on the red planet since it landed there early in the morning of August 6, 2012. That's 1,890 sunsets and 1,890 sunrises as the robot does its science, puttering around Gale Crater looking for interesting rocks to study.

For all the Mars romanticists out there, we (yes, that means me, too) hope and maybe even dream that Mars once harbored water. “If any microorganisms existed on ancient Mars , the watershed would have been a great place to live,” Ehlmann said. “So not only was water active in this

Given that Mars was once able to sustain water for extended periods, it’s reasonable to wonder about the Red Planet’s ancient climate. “Many people think overall Mars was warmer and wetter .”

The steam atmosphere may have persisted for up to 10 million years — long enough to create a global clay layer 1.9 miles (3 kilometers) thick, the researchers said. So they modeled what would happen to such a layer over the ensuing 4.5 billion years of Martian history, as volcanic eruptions covered many clay deposits and asteroid and comet impacts unearthed others.  

The modeling results accord well with what orbiters and rovers actually see on the Red Planet, Cannon said.

"To put some numbers on it, clays cover about 3 percent of the oldest crust exposures on Mars," he said in the statement. "We're finding about that same order of magnitude in these models."

Getting an answer

The new study, which was published online today (Dec. 6) in the journal Nature, doesn't prove anything. But it does make some testable predictions that could help researchers learn more about the Red Planet's ancient climate, study team members said.

For example, noble gases such as krypton and xenon were likely quite common in the primordial outgassed atmosphere, Cannon told Space.com. So finding lots of these elements in the Martian clays would support the steam-bath hypothesis advanced in the new study.

Such measurements probably can't be made from orbit, Cannon added: They would require the work of a sophisticated rover on site or, even better, analysis of returned Martian samples in well-equipped labs here on Earth.

NASA's next Mars rover, which is due to launch in 2020, will collect and cache samples for eventual transport to Earth. But that return is merely conceptual at the moment; there is no mission on the space agency's books to bring such samples to our planet.

New island offers clues in search for life on Mars: NASA .
The world's newest island -- formed during a volcanic eruption in the remote Pacific three years ago -- may offer clues to how life potentially developed on Mars, NASA said Wednesday. The island of Hunga Tonga Hunga Ha'apai rose from the seabed about 65 kilometres (40 miles) northwest of the Tongan capital Nuku'alofa in late 2014-early 2015.Scientists initially expected the island -- created when vast quantities of rock and dense ash spewed from the Earth's crust -- to wash away within a few months.

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